Optimal Quantum Metrology of Distant Black Bodies

*Quantum* **1**, 21 (2017)

Measurements of an object's temperature are important in many disciplines, from astronomy to engineering, as are estimates of an object's spatial configuration. We present the quantum optimal estimator for the temperature of a distant body based on the black body radiation received in the far-field. We also show how to perform quantum optimal estimates of the spatial configuration of a distant object, i.e. imaging. In doing so we necessarily deal with multi-parameter quantum estimation of incompatible observables, a problem that is poorly understood. We compare our optimal observables to the two mode analogue of lensed imaging and find that the latter is far from optimal, even when compared to measurements which are separable. To prove the optimality of the estimators we show that they minimise the cost function weighted by the quantum Fisher information-this is equivalent to maximising the average fidelity between the actual state and the estimated one.