A Geometric Perspective on Quantum Parameter Estimation

Submitted to *AVS Quantum Science* , (2019)

Quantum metrology holds the promise of an early practical application of quantum technologies, in which measurements of physical quantities can be made with much greater precision than what is achievable with classical technologies. In this review, we collect some of the key theoretical results in quantum parameter estimation by presenting the theory for the quantum estimation of a single parameter, multiple parameters, and optical estimation using Gaussian states. We give an overview of results in areas of current research interest, such as Bayesian quantum estimation, noisy quantum metrology, and distributed quantum sensing. We address the question how minimum measurement errors can be achieved using entanglement as well as more general quantum states. This review is presented from a geometric perspective. This has the advantage that it unifies a wide variety of estimation procedures and strategies, thus providing a more intuitive big picture of quantum parameter estimation.